# Leaving Cert - Full Access

Darwin Online College provides high quality affordable self paced online learning lessons to Leaving Certificate students using our online learning tools. These tools involve interactive comprehensive learning videos, quizzes, notes and interactive learning games.

Leaving Cert Higher Leaving Cert Ordinary
Trigonometry - Leaving Cert Math (Higher).
This lesson covers leaving cert higher level trigonometry.
The following content is covered:
There is a slide presentation covering the above content.
There are also interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past paper questions on trigonometry.
In this lesson we will cover both higher and ordinary level junior certificate algebra. The lesson will cover
• Number sets
• Simplifying algebraic expressions
• Factorising
• Solving linear and quadratic equations
• Simultaneous equations
• Long division in algebra
There are detailed tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions.
There are also tutorial videos guiding students through common algebra questions.

Coordinate geometry of the line and the circle

In this lesson we will cover leaving cert higher level coordinate geometry of the line and coordinate geometry of the circle.

We will cover the following:

1.  Coordinate geometry : the line

2.  Coordinate geometry : the circle

There is a presentation of slides where students can through through the above topics.

There are also detailed tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions on coordinate geometry of the line and coordinate geometry of the circle.

In this lesson we will cover the following leaving cert higher level algebra topics:
There are detailed tutorial videos on past algebra exam questions where students are guided through the correct solutions to past paper questions.
Students can review their knowledge with the algebra quiz. We bring different types of questions that we meet in algebra together in the quiz so you can test your understanding.
Statistics - Leaving Cert Maths (Higher).
This lesson covers leaving cert higher level statistics.
The following content is covered:
There is a slide presentation on the above content.
There are also interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions on statistics.

Probability - Leaving Cert Higher Level Maths

In this lesson we will cover leaving cert higher level probability.
The following will be covered:
There is a presentation of slides where students can go through the above probability topics.
There are also detailed tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions on probability.
Students can then test their understanding with our probability quiz.

Differentiation - Math (Higher)

We will cover the following:

Students are first presented with a presentation of slides going through leaving cert higher level differentiation. There are tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past paper questions on differentiation. Students can review their understanding of the topic with our differentiation quiz.
Complex Numbers - Math (Higher)
In this lesson we will cover complex numbers at leaving cert higher level.
We will cover the following:
There are detailed tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past paper questions on complex numbers.
Students can test their understanding on this topic with our complex numbers quiz.

Sequences and Series- Leaving cert higher level
In this lesson we will cover leaving cert higher level sequences and series.
The following content will be covered:
There is a slide presentation on the above content.
There are also interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions.
Logarithms- Leaving cert higher level
In this lesson we will cover leaving cert higher level logarithms.
The following content will be covered:
• Laws of logs
• Log Equations
• The logarithmic function as the inverse of the exponential function
• The natural exponential function
• The natural logarithmic function
• Examples of questions involving exponential rate of growth/decay
There are also interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past exam questions.

### Chemistry - Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is an important topic which makes up a large portion of the leaving cert paper. In this lesson, we will first discuss 8 families of chemical compounds called homologous series - the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters. We will then describe the different types of chemical reactions that these compounds can take part in, and how members from one family can be converted to members of another.

### Chemistry - Thermochemistry and Fuels

Thermochemistry involves studying how heat and temperature change in chemical reactions. We need to understand the two main types of reactions - endothermic and exothermic reactions - as well as a few definitions, and how to calculate the total change of heat in a reaction.We'll then learn about how fuels are produced and processed and what makes one fuel more efficient than another. Together, these will take up question 6 on the exam paper.

### Chemistry - Water

A true understanding of water as a compound is really central to chemistry and will help you with other topics like pH and titrations. In this lesson we will focus on hardness in water, drinking water treatment and waste water treatment. We will also go through the three important water experiments - how to test a water sample for total hardness, for dissolved oxygen content and for the concentration of free chlorine.

### Chemistry - Acids & Bases and pH

In this lesson, you will learn all about the two main theories of acids and bases - Bronsted-Lowry and Arrhenius - and how acids and bases react with each other. We will also cover the concept of pH and how to calculate the pH value for a strong acid, a strong base, a weak acid and a weak base.

This lesson contains 5 hotspot activities about acids & bases and pH. These are diagrams with certain points that you can click to reveal information about that diagram, and each one is followed by a small quiz about the material you've just learned.

The hotspot activities are followed by a 7-slide interactive lesson about acids & bases and pH. Progress from one slide to the next, through interactive videos, drag-and-drop activities and quiz questions.

All the key terms in this lesson are explained in the glossary.

### Chemistry - Titrations

A titration is an experiment carried out to determine the concentration of a solution. There are 6 titrations on the leaving cert chemistry course, and each year one of them will make up question 1 on the exam paper. In this lesson, we will look at the theory behind each of these 6 titrations, how to carry out the experiment and how to calculate the concentration of a solution using stoichiometry.

### Chemistry - Stoichiometry

This lesson will cover the stoichiometry section of Leaving Cert Chemistry. This is the maths side of chemistry and for this lesson, you'll need a periodic table and a calculator! We will cover moles and how to convert from moles to mass, number of molecules, gas volume and concentration, and then how to apply these skills to working out different bits of information about a reaction. After completing this course, you'll have a much better understanding of how to answer all the different kinds of stoichiometry questions in leaving cert chemistry papers.

### Chemistry - Atomic Chemistry

This lesson covers the atomic chemistry section of leaving cert chemistry, which includes atomic structure, electrons & orbitals, trends in the periodic table, bonding and radioactivity. This is a broad topic with a lot of content and every year it makes up question 5 of the exam paper, as well as various other smaller questions. After completing this lesson, you'll have a much better understanding of these topics and how to answer questions on them.

### Chemistry - Equilibrium

Equilibrium is the point in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backward reaction - or, more simply, the point at which the reaction settles down. Equilibrium is like the reset point for the reaction, and it will always return to this point. In this lesson we will gain a better understanding of chemical equilibrium. We will also look at how to calculate the equilibrium point and how to predict how the reaction will respond to different changes.
There are 22 practical experiments on the leaving cert course. This lesson will first focus on the scientific method and how and why experiments are done. It will then cover nine key experiments - food tests (1 experiment), enzyme experiments (4 experiments) and the study of an ecosystem (4 experiments). The experiments are based off the theoretical course content and for these nine, it helps to have a good understanding of the cell, biochemistry and ecology.
The immune system is our body's natural defense against pathogens - bacteria, protists, fungi and viruses which cause disease. There are two parts to it - the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system is a general defense against all pathogens, whereas the adaptive immune system involves a process where different types of white blood cells recognise and kill specific pathogens. Only once we understand how the immune system works, can we begin to understand what the different blood groups are and how people can become immune to certain pathogens.
All living organisms can be classified into five different groups - these are called the '5 Kingdoms of Life'. Two of these groups are animals and plants; the other three groups - monera (bacteria) , protista and fungi - are microorganisms. Microorganisms are living organisms that are so small that we can't see them with the naked eye - we need a microscope to see them. These tiny creatures dominate the planet and we must aim to have a good understanding of the different types of them, their structure, what they eat, how they reproduce and examples of ones that are both good and bad for us.
Ecology is the study of living organisms, the environment in which they live and the relationships between them. It's first important to understand how the ecosystem works, how energy moves from one level of the food chain to the next and how nutrients are recycled. Then we can look at how organisms interact with each other and how populations rise and fall.

This glossary gives a brief explanation of all the key terms used throughout every lesson in the junior cert and leaving cert science courses.

Evolution is how species slowly change over time and in the middle of the 19th century, biology was transformed when two English naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently worked out just how evolution works. Around the same time, a Czechoslovakian monk, Gregor Mendel, began to work out the laws of inheritance - how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. Building on what Mendel discovered, we can now work out the traits of the potential offspring between a couple of any species, using a method called a genetic cross.
When you look inside a cell, then inside the nucleus, keep zooming in and you'll see the organisms DNA  - the blueprint of life. It's crucial to have a good understanding of the fine structure of DNA (and of another similar molecule called RNA) before progressing through the rest of genetics. Next, we look at how cells are constantly copying their DNA and then dividing in two, themselves. After this we look at how cells read the  genetic code inside the DNA and use this code to manufacture proteins - and how we can use this information to our advantage to make proteins in the lab or in the factory.
Biochemistry is the chemistry of cells - or, put more plainly, how cells function. A cell is constantly being run by different chemical reactions inside it - the two main ones we will study are photosynthesis and respiration. These chemical reactions are driven by two types of  big molecules inside the cell - energy carriers and enzymes. Once we understand how cells work, naturally, we can manipulate them in industry to produce food, drink and medicine.

The cell is the functional unit of biology - everything alive either is a cell or is composed of cells. For this reason, a good understanding of the structure and function of the cell is imperative to the rest of biology. This lesson will study biomolecules - the chemicals that cells are made from; the different structures in a cell and what they do; how substances move in and out of cells; and how we use microscopes to study cells. After completing this lesson, you'll be ready to look at biology at another level.
This lesson will focus on Electricity. We will cover charges, Coulomb's law, electric fields and electric field strength, potential difference, capacitance, electric current, and semiconductors.
This lesson will focus on Electricity. We will cover resistance, Ohm's Law, resistivity, wheatstone bridges, electromagnetism, magnetic flux, Faraday's and Lenz's laws, and induction

This lesson will focus on the Electron and Radioactivity. We will cover the discovery of electrons and their applications, the photoelectric effect, x-rays, the nucleus, radioactivity, and nuclear energy
This lesson will focus on the topic of Waves and Wave Motion, covering how waves behave, how to describe them, light as waves, spectrometry, and the Doppler Effect.
This lesson will focus on the topic of Sound and Vibration. including how sound acts as a wave, characteristics of a sound, how sound travels, sound intensity, vibration of a stretched string, and sound in open and closed pipes.
This lesson is about Heat and Temperature.
In it, we cover temperature, how it is measured, its units, calibrating thermometers, heat, heat capacity, latent heat, and how heat is transferred.
In this lesson we will cover the first chunk of Leaving Cert Mechanics, Motion. We will learn about speeddisplacementvelocityaccelerationvelocity-time graphs, how to use the equations of motion, vector and scalar quantities - and how all of these can be used to predict movement and direction of a body.

This lesson will focus on the second chunk of the Mechanics course.
We will study force, mass, weight, momentum, pressure in liquids and gases, Newton's Laws of Motion, and gravity.
This lesson will focus on the final chunk of the Mechanics course.
We will study moments, work, energy, power, and circular and simple harmonic motion
This lesson will focus on the first topic of optics: Reflection and Mirrors.
The use, application and fundamentals of plane mirrors and spherical mirrors is covered in this lesson.
This lesson will focus on the second Optics topic of the Leaving Cert Physics course: Refraction and Lenses.
In this lesson, we will cover:

### Leaving Certificate Irish - Essay 4

In this section we will cover common essay titles for paper one of the leaving cert higher level exam.

### Leaving Certificate Irish - Essay 3

In this section we will cover 2 common essay titles for paper one of the leaving cert higher level exam.

### Leaving Cert Irish - Essay Podcasts

In this lesson, we will hear each of the following leaving cert higher level Irish essays being read aloud:

1. An Sceimhlitheoireacht
2. Na meáin shóisialta
4. An Timpeallacht
5. An Córas Oideachais
6. An Ghaeilge
7. An Imirce
8. An Taisteal
9. Géarchéim na tithíochta

### Leaving Certificate Irish - Essay 1

In this section we will cover 2 common essay titles for paper one of the leaving cert higher level exam.
1. The Education system
2. The Irish language

### Leaving Cert Irish - Listening Comprehension Part1

An easy-to-follow guide to the vocabulary needed for Junior Certificate French. Includes vocab for:
• Listening Comprehensions
• Written Expression

### Leaving Cert Irish - Sraith Pictiur (Oral Exam)

An tSraith Pictiúr

• The Sraith Pictiúr (picture series) is the third task that will be presented to you during the oral exam.
• It is worth 80 marks in total. You may be awarded up to 50 marks for the content of your sraith pictiúr, while your standard of grammar is marked out of 20, so make sure you have them rehearsed beforehand.
• The final part of the sraith pictiúr involves the examiner asking you three questions, which you will answer. You will then also ask the examiner three questions, which they will answer.

### Leaving Cert Irish - Cuid 1: An Bhéaltriail (Oral Exam)

An Sraith Pictiúr

• The Sraith Pictiúr (picture series) is the third task that will be presented to you during the oral exam.
• It is worth 80 marks in total. You may be awarded up to 50 marks for the content of your sraith pictiúr, while your standard of grammar is marked out of 20, so make sure you have them rehearsed beforehand.
• The final part of the sraith pictiúr involves the examiner asking you three questions, which you will answer. You will then also ask the examiner three questions, which they will answer.

### Leaving Certificate French - Oral 02

This lesson covers:

• a guide to the Diary question, including handy sentences, phrases, and idioms
• a guide to the Formal letter and the Note Questions, including the structure of these and handy vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Oral 01

This lesson covers:

• a guide to the Diary question, including handy sentences, phrases, and idioms
• a guide to the Formal letter and the Note Questions, including the structure of these and handy vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Reading Comprehension Part 2

This lesson covers:

• the layout of the Reading Comprehension section and some handy tips
• a guide to the recurring questions found in the Reading Comprehensions
• Questions 4, 5, and 6 of the two Reading Comprehensions, including vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Reading Comprehension 01

This lesson covers:

• a guide to the Diary question, including handy sentences, phrases, and idioms
• a guide to the Formal letter and the Note Questions, including the structure of these and handy vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Aural Part 2

This lesson covers:

• a guide to the Diary question, including handy sentences, phrases, and idioms
• a guide to the Formal letter and the Note Questions, including the structure of these and handy vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Aural 001

This lesson covers:

• the layout of the Aural Section, plus helpful exam strategies
• Vocabulary lists
• a How-to on keywords

### Leaving Certificate French - Essay 002

This lesson covers:

• a guide to the Diary question, including handy sentences, phrases, and idioms
• a guide to the Formal letter and the Note Questions, including the structure of these and handy vocabulary

### Leaving Certificate French - Essay 001

This lesson covers:
• common themes for the Written Section, including Education, Sport, Health, Ireland and the EU, Immigration and Emigration, Money, Equality, Crime, Family Matters, the Media, and the Environment.
• Sample sentences to be used for any topic
• how to structure the Opinion Pieces

### Algebra Ordinary - Open

Algebra - Leaving Cert Ordinary Level
In this lesson we will cover Leaving Cert Ordinary Level Algebra.
We will go through the following:
There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our algebra quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Differentiation Ordinary - Open

Differentiation - Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In the lesson we will cover the following differentiation topics:
There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our differentiation quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Complex Numbers Ordinary - Open

Complex Numbers- Leaving Cert Ordinary Level
In this lesson we will cover Leaving Cert Ordinary Level Complex Numbers.
We will go through the following:
There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our complex numbers quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Trigonometry Ordinary - Open

Trigonometry - Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In the lesson we will cover the following trigonometry topics:

There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our trigonometry quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Sequences Ordinary - Open

Sequences and series - Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In the lesson we will cover the following sequences and series topics:

There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our sequences and series quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Coordinate Geometry Ordinary - Open

Coordinate geometry- Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In this lesson activity we will cover Leaving Cert Ordinary Co-ordinate Geometry of the line and the circle.
We will cover the following:

There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our co-ordinate geometry quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Statistics Ordinary - Open

Statistics - Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In the lesson we will cover the following statistics topics:

There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our statistics quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.

### Math Probability Ordinary - Open

Probability - Leaving Cert Ordinary level
In this lesson activity we will cover Leaving Cert Ordinary Level Probability.
We will cover the following:
There is a slide presentation for students to view covering the above.
There are detailed interactive tutorial videos where students are guided through the correct solutions to past leaving cert ordinary level paper questions.
Students can test their understanding with our probability quiz. The quiz questions are taken from leaving cert ordinary level past papers, which helps to familiarize students with the style of the questions that will be presented to them in the leaving cert.